Research & reviews


This study shows that HIV-infected individuals have a lower risk of developing AIDS or other serious illnesses if they start taking ART sooner:

The INSIGHT START study group Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in Early Asymptomatic HIV Infection. N Engl J Med 2015; 373:795-807August 27, 2015DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa150681


These papers show the impact of HIV treatment (antiretroviral therapy, ART) on mortality and confirm that it is highly cost effective:

Walensky RP, Paltiel AD, Losina E, et al. The survival benefits of AIDS treatment in the United States. J. Infect. Dis. 2006;194(1):11–19

Sendi P, Butcher H, Harr T et al. Cost effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV infected patients: Swiss HIV Cohort study. AIDS 1999; 13: 1115–1122.

Miners AH, Sabin CA, Trueman P et al. Assessing cost effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy for adults with HIV in England. HIV Med 2001; 2: 52–58.

Freedberg KA, Losina E, Weinstein MC et al. The cost effectiveness of combination antiretroviral therapy in HIV disease. N Engl J Med 2001; 344: 824–831


These papers show that late diagnosis of HIV is associated with higher costs:

Beck EJ, Mandalia S, Sangha R et al. The cost effectiveness of early access to HIV services and starting cART in the UK 1996–2008. PLoS ONE 2011; 6: e27830.

Beck EJ, Mandalia S, Lo G et al. Cost-effectiveness of early treatment with first-line NNRTI-based HAART regimens in the UK, 1996–2006. PLoS ONE 2011; 6: e20200.


This study showed that people whose HIV is treated are much much less likely to transmit HIV to their partner:


Cohen MS et al Prevention of HIV-1 Infection with early Antiretroviral Therapy. New England Journal of Medicine 365; 493-505. 2011


These studies provide evidence that HIV is being missed in general practice and other healthcare settings and that a routine offer of HIV testing is acceptable to patients:


Burns FM, Johnson AM, Nazroo J, Ainsworth J, Anderson J, Fakoya A, et al. Missed opportunities for earlier HIV diagnosis within primary and secondary healthcare settings in the UK. AIDS. 2008 Jan 2;22(1):115-22.

Sudarshi D, Pao D, Murphy G, Parry J, Dean G, Fisher M. Missed opportunities for diagnosing primary HIV infection. Sex Transm Infect. 2008 Feb; 84(1):14-6.

Bates SM. HIV testing in abortion clinics, J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care 2011;37:198–200. doi:10.1136/jfprhc-2011-100136

Adrian Palfreeman, Farai Nyatsanza, Helen Farn, Graham McKinnon, Paul Schober, Paul McNally. HIV testing for acute medical admissions: evaluation of a pilot study in Leicester, England.  Sex Transm Infect 2013;89:308-310 doi:10.1136/sextrans-2011-050401

Did you know...

Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV, was identified by two different research groups in 1983

 "Thirty years into the HIV epidemic we still have major discrimination and stigma related to HIV, as well as laws and law enforcement that drive people away from HIV services" Sidibe, UNAIDS, 2011.

Doctors